Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Tapped Water supply and Bottled Water Essay

Tapped Water supply and Bottled Water Essay Tapped: Water supply and Bottled Water Essay TAPPED In the documentary TAPPED directed by Stephanie Soechtig the horrifying effects of plastic water bottles on our health, environment, and our economy are uncovered. The documentary starts in Maine where the citizens of Fryeburg try to fight of Nestle, who is taking their water source. Basically what Nestle is doing is taking these citizens’ water and selling in back to them for more than it is worth without being taxed. The idea of water bottles became popular around the 1980’s and erupted from there. It is said to be one of the greatest market schemes of all time. Many customers believe they are receiving more healthy water, and fail to recognize the harmful effects on the body. The actual process of making these plastic bottles is detrimental to our environment. The amount of pollution and carbon dioxide these plants release is staggering. Families near the area of Corpus Christi, Texas are suffering from severe health issues and many fatalities due to the plant right in town. This is just one of the many examples of the effects of plastic making factories. Another issue when it comes to water bottles is the disposing of them. A good amount of all water bottles made either end up in the ocean or a land fill somewhere. Instead of being recycled, it is more convenient for people to throw them away. By filling the ocean with plastics, we are killing animals. The animals think the plastic is food, and when too much gets in their system they will die. Only 50% of Americans have recycling, which is a main reason they end up there. Also, by drinking bottled water we are also hurting ourselves. Bisphenol A is a primary component in most plastics water bottles, and many studies have been shown that is effects one’s overall health. Some health effects mentioned in the documentary were reproductive disorders, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, male impotence and many others. Knowing all these effects of BPA made me think there must be another material we can use. Personally, after watching this documentary, I will always buy BPA free water bottles. If everyone started doing this, they would be much healthier and cause the businesses that use BPA to switch over. There are also many other harmful ingredients in plastic water bottles. For example, one group of bottles was taken right from the shelves of a store and was contained toluene which is a chemical found in paint thinners and gasoline. They did another test in which they left a case of bottled water sitting in the trunk of a car for a week and the results were not what they wanted to see. The bottles contained styrene which causes cancer and phthalate which damages developing fetus. On e truth that this documentary digs out is that about 40% of all bottled

Sunday, March 1, 2020

A Brief Overview of Émile Durkheims Role in Sociology

A Brief Overview of Émile Durkheim's Role in Sociology Who was Émile Durkheim? He was a famous French philosopher and sociologist known as the father of the French school of sociology for his methodology combining empirical research with sociological theory. The following outlines his life and career and his published works. Early Life and Education Émile Durkheim (1858–1917) was born in Épinal, France, on April 15, 1858, to a devout French Jewish family. His father, grandfather, and great-grandfather had all been rabbis, and it was assumed that he would follow their lead when they enrolled him in a rabbinical school. However, at an early age, he decided not to follow in his familys footsteps and switched schools after realizing that he preferred to study religion from an agnostic standpoint as opposed to being indoctrinated. In 1879, his good grades got him into the École Normale Supà ©rieure (ENS), a well-regarded graduate school in Paris. Career and Later Life Durkheim became interested in a scientific approach to society very early on in his career, which meant the first of many conflicts with the French academic system- which had no social science curriculum at the time. Durkheim found humanistic studies uninteresting, turning his attention from psychology and philosophy to ethics and eventually, sociology. He graduated with a degree in philosophy in 1882. Durkheims views could not get him a major academic appointment in Paris, so from 1882 to 1887 he taught philosophy at several provincial schools. In 1885 he left for Germany, where he studied sociology for two years. Durkheims period in Germany resulted in the publication of numerous articles on German social science and philosophy, which gained recognition in France and earned him a teaching appointment at the University of Bordeaux in 1887. This was an important sign of the change of times and the growing importance and recognition of the social sciences. From this position, Durkheim helped reform the French school system and introduced the study of social science in its curriculum. Also in 1887, Durkheim married Louise Dreyfus, with whom he later had two children. In 1893, Durkheim published his first major work, The Division of Labor in Society, in which he introduced the concept of anomie, or the breakdown of the influence of social norms on individuals within a society. In 1895, he published The Rules of Sociological Method, his second major work, which was a manifesto stating what sociology is and how it ought to be done. In 1897, he published his third major work, Suicide: A Study in Sociology, a case study exploring the differing suicide rates among Protestants and Catholics and arguing that stronger social control among Catholics results in lower suicide rates. By 1902, Durkheim had finally achieved his goal of attaining a prominent position in Paris when he became the chair of education at the Sorbonne. Durkheim also served as an advisor to the Ministry of Education. In 1912, he published his last major work, The Elementary Forms of The Religious Life, a book that analyzes religion as a social phenomenon. Émile Durkheim died of a stroke in Paris on November 15, 1917, and is buried in the citys Montparnasse Cemetery.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Distinguish Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Distinguish - Essay Example There are various other ways in which performance appraisals and performance management is differentiated from each other. Performance appraisals are conducted once, every particular year and these are conducted on the request of HR department (Koontz 243). On the contrary, performance management is conducted on very frequent basis and is conducted on the request of supervisors and subordinates. Performance appraisal process for an organization is created by the HR department and then it is forwarded to the managers so managers can utilize them while evaluating performance. In case of creating performance management process, both the employees and their managers are involved. Feedback derived through performance appraisals take place only once a year when performance is appraised, while feedback from performance management takes places each time the managers and the supervisors conduct performance management and they hold discussions about performance targets and achievement of those targets. When performance appraisal is conducted for an employee, the appraiser has a duty to reach an agreement with the appraised employee about how well he has performed and in what areas he needs training and development. In case of performance management, the appraiser has to understand the criteria of performance and has to explain employees about how their behaviors are matched to the criteria. In performance management the supervisors and subordinates identify expectations and how these expectations will help achieve organizational goals and objectives. In performance appraisal, the appraisee has to either accept or reject the performance appraisal conducted by managers and have to accept the sectors where improvement is required. In performance management, the appraisee has to understand the fit between expectations and organizations goals and objectives. A comparison of performance

Saturday, February 1, 2020

The Impact of African Slave Trading Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

The Impact of African Slave Trading - Essay Example Thornton cites the example of the Ndongo war, which lasted from 1625 until 1655 in countering the traditionally held ideal that wars were strictly economical (Thornton 101). This war was fought over succession to the throne of Ndongo (Thornton 100) and can account for many of the Angolan slaves captured during this time (Thronton 101). â€Å"Such wars, however, may well have been waged solely in order to acquire slaves even without the demands of Atlantic traders† (Thornton 102). Thornton believes war and slavery were an accepted way of life in Africa, and as such would have continued without the European influence. However this is one simple example that does not explain the reasoning behind the multitude of other wars in Africa. He mentions that motives might appear to be economical when indeed they are political, but it seems impossible to believe that the knowledge of demand for slaves would not have affected the leader’s decisions in initiating war with economic ga in in mind. While Thornton does acknowledge that there was a boost in the slavery market due to the European influence, he does not seem to acknowledge the depth of change the demand of the European traders must have had. It seems that with such a large demand for slaves, it would profoundly influence the economics of the African tribes. It would be exhaustive to attempt to catalog the actual number of slaves taken from Africa over such a long time period but we are able to look at isolated instances that illuminate the effects of the slave trade.

Friday, January 24, 2020

Fiddler on the Roof Essay -- essays research papers

The musical called â€Å"Fiddler on the Roof† was set in Anatefka, Russia around 1880-1900. During this time, in this small town, held Tevya and his family. Tevya, husband and father of five daughters, is a cynical, obstinate, determined, yet sensitive to feelings, and caring man. He is a clever philosopher and sticks very much to tradition. In the story Tevya says â€Å"Anatefka is our home...to keep in balance by tradition...† This explains the title which is personally understood that through Tevya’s eyes, without tradition, life would be as a fiddler on a roof, unbalanced. This story, demonstrates the precarious lives of the Russian Jews of the late 19th century. The main character, Tevya, compares their lives to that of a fiddler on a roof with only traditions helping them keep their balance. However, throughout the story, Tevya is forced time and again to face and break traditions.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Tzeitle, Tevya’s oldest daughter was supposedly to be prepared a husband by her parents with the help of Yenta (the old gossip woman who also makes matches). Tzeitle’s parents agree with the match-making to Lazar Wolf the rich old butler. The problem is that Tzeitle is in love with Mottle, the poor tailor and pledged each other they would marry. The bigger conflict appears when Tevya finds out and also after he told Lazar Wolf he could marry his daughter. Tevya, after having a nightmare with Lazar Wolf’s ex-wife, threatening to kill Tzeitle if she marries Lazar, and after...

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Private Security after 9/11 Essay

The Transportation Security Administration   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Two months after the 9/11 attacks, the Congress ratified the Aviation and Transportation Security Act or what is known as the ATSA, creating what is known as the Transportation Security Administration (The Heritage†¦ 2006). According to the assumptions to the federalization of airport security, all passengers are uniformly suspicious and should have similar analysis, and the principal aim of the airport security is to observe and confiscate hazardous objects such as knives, bombs and guns, resulting to the creation of TSA which cause an extensive cost without making Americans perceptively safer (The Heritage†¦, 2006). Transportation Security Administration or the TSA which is a part of the Aviation and transportation Security Act ratified by the US Congress and signed by George W. Bush on November 19, 2001 is a United States government agency that was formed immediately after the tragedies at the World Trade Center and Pentagon on September 11, 2001 (TSA 2007). The TSA was originally structured in the U.S. Department of Transportation but on March 01, 2003 was reassigned to the US Department of Homeland Security with the responsibility for the safety of the country’s system of transportations. With the regional, local, and state partners, the Transportation Security Agency with approximately 50,000 employees, watches over and administer the security and safety of railroads, buses, ports, transit systems, highways, and 450 United States Airports (TSA 2007). Among the airports includes the Sioux Falls Regional Airport and the San Francisco International Airport, which uses private security under contract with the Transportation and Security Administration in inspecting passengers and bag gages. The TSA is responsible in the safety and protection of all types of transportation such as rail, pipelines & highways, and aviation in which the huge majority of its employees can be found. Before the creation of TSA the security screening is managed by the private companies who had contracts with either, a terminal, an airline or an airport operator. Private security agencies have been authorized by the Transportation and Security Administration in providing security but these agencies are under the permission or approval of the TSA. TSA was assigned in the development of policies in ensuring the security and safety of any forms of transportation especially the US air traffic. The Transportation and Security Administration supervise the Federal Air Marshall Service until it was shifted to the US Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement in December 1, 2003, and in the US Government’s fiscal year in 2006, the Federal Air Marshall Program was shifted back again to the TSA. The TSA is accountable for operation in screening passengers’ items and luggage in all US Commercial airports, and combating baggage theft in many airports. TSA has also receives many criticisms concerning airport operations and this includes, complaints mistreatment of invasion privacy, engaging I security theater, theft of airline passenger possessions, sales of items collected from passengers, skipping security checks, failure on the use of common sense and judgment, and failure to screen and detect fake bombs brought by an undercover TSA agent.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Intense implementation deadlines required by the US Congress, limited terminal space, high investment on baggage screening equipments, and limited number of screeners, combined to generate huge inefficiencies and because of this $2.5 billion dollars have been spent just for the baggage screening equipments as of September 2004 in spite of high error rate and low performance of the expensive explosive detection system or EDS. Transportation Security Today   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Before September 11, 2001, transportation safety within the United States was restricted in purpose and in degree. Total federal spending for all transportation security was less than $200 million a year, with most of that devoted to passenger aviation. Subway surveillance cameras and transit police sought detect or stop criminal activity, and customs agents at ports look for smugglers. The only division that had received essential resources and security policy awareness from the US Federal Government, the importance was tremendously shifted overseas (William Johnstone, 2006, p. 1). Many have explained the success of the 9/11 attacks as mainly the result of imperfect intelligence, but the available evidence indicates the primary negligence was that of the aviation security system. The whole history of the system, as well as the testimony received by the 9/11 Commission indicates that its defenses could only respond effectively with the kind of actionable and specific intelligence that all agree is always in short supply (William Johnstone, 2006, p. 2). The federal government responded to the 9/11 with a flurry of Congressional and Executive Branch initiatives, including: the Aviation and Transportation Security Act of 2001 (ATSA), which created the Transportation Security Administration to be responsible for the security of all modes of transportation and established the deadlines for the implementation of the a number of specific aviation security measures, the Marine Transportation Security Act of 2002 (MTSA) which set the security guidelines for ports and ships, the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (HSA) which established new department of homeland Security (DHS) by combining twenty two separate federal agencies, including TSA, the Coast Guard, the Customs Ser vice, and the Federal Management Agency (FEMA) The 2002 legislation creating the 9/11 Commission which was to examine and report upon the facts and causes relating to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and investigate and report to the President and Congress on its findings, conclusions and recommendations for corrective measures that can be taken to prevent acts of terrorism, a series of Homeland Security Presidential directives (HSPDS), including the December 2003 HSPD-& which called for DHAS to produce a comprehensive integrated National Plan for Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources Protection, and lastly, the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention act of 2004 which turned many of the 9/11 commission’s recommendation including those relating to transportation security into statutory mandates (William Johnstone, 2006). The increased federal policy attention was accompanied by a substantial rise in federal funding for the Transportation Security, which rose from less than $150 million in Fiscal years (FY) 2001 to more than $7.7 billion in FY2005, but four years after 9/11, after a several, a series of federal laws, reorganization, and executive directives, after more than $25 billion in few federal security investments, major questions remain about the effectiveness of all the elements of the new system. Aviation Security With the layers of aviation security the intelligence security sector of the TSA is more pertinent to decision and leadership of its agency doing procedure than its forerunner in the FAA, but even if it is two times as large as its forerunner, it stays considerably understaffed and its agents are now distributed much fewer with duties for the modes of transportation not just in aviation (William Johnstone, 2006). Development has been recounted in perimeter security of airports through a lowering in the access points of airports, an rise in vehicles entering airports and in, surveillance of individuals and some enhancements in background checks of airport employee, though, small has varied in the divided responsibilities of the old systems for â€Å"access control†, with US Federal Government, and to a lesser degree the airlines all having a function (p. 6).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   General aviation security has not been substantially has not been substantially upgraded, with neighbor pilots, passengers, baggage, nor cargo subjected to security screening, and threat and vulnerability has assessment have yet to be undertaken for most general aviation airports. A December 2004 Congressional report, criticized TSA for failing to understand the risk from small private planes, provide useful threat information to general aviation airports, and enforce security compliance by charter airlines and flight schools (p. 6). Similar weaknesses persist to continue in air cargo security, and reportedly only 5% of all cargo is presently screened, and the GAO has stated that carrying cargo aircraft persist to be highly susceptible to sabotage of terrorist. TSA has stated sets of regulation for security of air cargo but usual for rule making, the procedure is progressing very slowly, and even if concluded, the new rules would give fewer features on how freight industry, which is anticipated to execute the security program, is to perform this groundless mandates (p. 6).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Four years of going through have educated us that the United States government can’t do the work better compared to the private sector and this should not come as unexpected because absolutely every nation that has utilized government screeners has reached similar conclusion (The Heritage†¦, 2006). When nations first attempt to prevent airline hijacking in the 1970’s, most countries originally used government staffs to enhance security at airports through justice agency or government transportation, and in the start of the 1980’s the European airports starts developing a â€Å"performance contracting model† with which the government impose and establish high performance standard with which airports did by employing security companies. Belgium was the 1st to do this mode in 1982, in 1983 this was emulated by the Netherlands, in 1987 by the United Kingdom, and a new wave of conversions to the â€Å"public private partnership model in 1990’s, in 1992 with Germany, 1993 in France, 1994 in Austria and Denmark, 1998 in Ireland and Poland, and 1999 in Italy, Spain, Portugal, and Switzerland (The Heritage†¦, 2006). The GAO examined the security inspection methods of Belgium, Canada, Netherlands, France, and the United Kingdom reporting the excellent performance of airports in Europe using the performance contracting model. The GAO state the four parts of the important differences between European and US screening practices at the time, and these are, better overall security system design, higher training and qualifications prerequisite for screeners, better pay and benefits resulting in much lower turnover rates, and screening task given with the national government or the airport and not with airlines (The Heritage†¦, 2006). Reactive System   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In the 1990 the Presidential Commission on Aviation and terrorism, which itself had been established only after the Pan AM 103 disaster, reported to the nation that the FAA was a reactive agency preoccupied with responses to events to the exclusion of adequate contingency planning in anticipation of future threats (William Johnstone, 2006). The main features of the pre 9/11 security system can be summarized as anti-hijacking measures (including checkpoint screening, profiling, and air marshals, the anti-sabotage measures including X-ray screening and positive passenger bag match at high risk airports, and additional measure such as explosive detection equipment, canine teams, and CAPPS (William Johnstone, 2006). Unpromising Future The hope for any important improvement in baggage and passenger security are depressing because instead of tasking each airport with securing its operations under the National Regulatory Supervision† as is ordinary in most other countries, Congress tackle the 9/11 failure of security by instructing in the Transportation Security Administration not only the regulatory responsibility but also the â€Å"service provision duties of the airport screening (The Heritage†¦, 2006). The TSA served as both an operator and passenger screener while the perimeter patrols, access control and law enforcement duties were to be done by the airports themselves under the FSD administration, creating a serious conflict of interest. The Need for Legislation   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Primarily, the fault cannot be attributed alone with the TSA, but with the Congress which directed how the US government must tackle the problem, the Congress selected in concentrating on how the US government could make the pre 9/11 security check better rather than directing the vital issue of searching for the most effective and efficient method to stop terrorist off the plane. The Congress formed the problem and solving it will make Congress’ law to reshape the US government on the duties of stopping terrorist more willingly than focusing on the passengers’ luggage. The congress can begin by shifting the TSA into a much more different Aviation security Agency, and the Congress should push the US Government to get out of the screening business and transfer screening to airports, obliging only that they authorize contracts, set performance standards, and observe compliance (The Heritage†¦, 2006). The new ASA should enforce and set standards focusing on, certification of security companies with which an agency of the US Government evaluates the backgrounds of its directors and officers and financial stability of each firms, licensing of individual workers, initially as skilled security officers and then as specialized aviation agents, standards for benefits and salary to guarantee that people of highly skilled employees are hired and that they are motivated to stay with the company, and lastly, training of operating personnel and managers (The Heritage†¦, 2006). A New Model for Aviation Security The DHS should focus its attention to the development of the 21st century cargo system and international passenger security system that doesn’t waste resources by considering every package and person as an equal risk that needs screening and checks. A new â€Å"model system should distribute resources of security in comparison with the risk or danger, counting on what is called as â€Å"focused security† that place the most resources alongside with the highest risks. An enhanced â€Å"risk based approach† to recognize dangerous persons would make separation of passengers within the checkpoints of terminals into at least three distinct groups according to the quality and quantity of information known about each, such low risk passengers with which great deal is known, ordinary passengers or persons who are mostly infrequent flyers and leisure travelers, and high risk passengers or people whom nothing is known or having negative information about them. Also, different actions for bag and passenger screening should be done with each group to have an efficient system resources and passenger time allotment on methods that give little to the security of airport. The â€Å"risk based approach† would give noteworthy cost savings to both operating cost and capital while aiming funds of the airport security toward the passengers who are expected to pose threats to property and people, and those savings could be utilized to develop security in other areas and lower the passenger, airline, airport, and taxpayer’s cost (The Heritage†¦, 2006). The â€Å"risk based model would also lower the cost and size of   â€Å"checked baggage screening†, and the bags of RT members could be screened through X ray machines, lowering the EDS machines’ demand. Conclusion The US Congress can assist to tackle the country’s airport security requirement more effectively by insisting the 3 essential changes such as, reconstructing the TSA’s mission from giving airport security to being a policymaker of the aviation security, devolving screening responsibility to the airport level under the authorization of a director of the federal security, and lastly, requiring that the DHS labor to construct a new cargo and passenger security system that utilize a â€Å"risk based model† for the security of airports (The Heritage†¦, 2006). References Burns, V., Peterson, D. (2005).   Terrorism: A Documentary and Reference Guide.   New York: Greenwood Press. TSA – Transportation Security Administration. (2007). What Is TSA?. Retrieved December 23 2007, from http://www.tsa.gov/who_we_are/what_is_tsa.shtm The Heritage Foundation. (2006). Time to Rethink Airport Security. Retrieved December 23 2007, from http://www.heritage.org/Research/HomelandSecurity/bg1955.cfm Williams C. (2004).   Aircrew Security.   New York: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. William Johnstone, R. (2006).   9/11 and the Future of Transportation Security.   New York: Greenwood Press.            

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Recreational Benefits and Constraints of Homosexual Elders...

Recreational Benefits and Constraints of Homosexual Elders in Canada Recreation and leisure activities are integral parts of a person’s day-to-day life. For the purposes of this paper, recreation and leisure will be defined as something that a person chooses to do when they are not working; that contributes positively to their overall quality of life; that contributes positively to the quality of society and the surrounding people; that make a person feel confident and allow those around them to have positive experiences; and that improve ones physical health. Recreation and leisure cannot be measured; it is simply what makes a person feel enriched. This paper will analyze the recreational activities of homosexual elderly people in†¦show more content†¦The article states that the â€Å"inhalation of volatile nitrites is a possible contributing factor in AIDS because their pharmacologic properties lead to toxicity and because†¦the timing of production and sales o f volatile nitrites for recreational use is the only new life-style factor that explains AIDS,† (Newell, Mansell, et al, 1985). Not only did the gay and lesbian community attempt to cope with sex and drugs, but also self-injury. An article by Alderman (2009) discusses the evidence that self-injury is more common within the gay and lesbian community than the heterosexual community. This can be attributed to the previously mentioned physical and mental abuse from others, fear, isolation, and lack of a solid support system. Alderman discusses that the association with body image and homosexual people is important because they identify body image as a common concern (2009). Unfortunately, homosexual elders caused a significant amount of harm to their bodies as youth. For this reason, it is evident that physical recreation and leisure activities crucial. The dangerous substances and activities that they took part in as young adults are reason for their bodies to not be in the best condition. The benefits of physical activity are to bring their bodies to a healthy and stable condition. This will also effectively increase their levels of self-esteem. This isShow MoreRelatedHuman Resources Management150900 Words   |  604 Pagesand more employment-related lawsuits have been filed, some employers have become more wary about adding employees. Instead, by using contract workers supplied by others, they face fewer employment legal issues regarding selection, discrimination, benefits, discipline, and termination. BNA Using Contingent Workers 445.10 Review the types of contingent workers and the legal issues associated with their use. Demographics and Diversity The U.S. workforce has been changing dramatically. It isRead MoreFundamentals of Hrm263904 Words   |  1056 PagesOrienting, and Developing Employees 182 Managing Careers 208 PART 5 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 MAINTAINING HIGH PERFORMANCE Establishing the Performance Management System 230 Establishing Rewards and Pay Plans 260 Employee Benefits 286 Ensuring a Safe and Healthy Work Environment 312 PART 6 Chapter 14 LABOR–MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTS Understanding Labor Relations and Collective Bargaining 340 Endnotes 367 Glossary 389 Company Index 395 Subject Index 398 v Contents Read MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 Pagesaftermath of the catastrophic war that engulfed much of the world between 1914 and 1918. Though the colonized peoples of Africa and Asia and the peasants and laborers that made up much of the world’s population in the postwar decades derived little benefit from the interwar campaigns for human rights and dignity, principles were enunciated and precedents established that would form the basis for the more broadly based human rights struggles of the last half of the century. Due in large part, however